Because all dentistry is both cosmetic and functional, cosmetic dentistry is really a misnomer and is not a recognized specialty by the American Dental Association. Prosthodontics touches upon many areas, such as maxillofacial prosthodontics, implants, and common dental reconstruction such as partials, dentures, crowns, and bridges, as well as treatment for orofacial pain and sleep apnea.

Orofacial pain, not commonly associated with dentistry by laymen, is a subspeciality that deals with the relationship of the joints, muscles, and teeth and jaw position, and pharynx of the stomatognathic system.

Referred pain from various muscles, particularly of the masticatory group, neck, and shoulders can frequently manifest itself as dental pain, often focusing on a single tooth. Referred pain can be defined as pain originating in a malfunctioning or diseased area of the body, but perceived in another area, often far from the origin.